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Jivaro - Scholarly Research on the Web

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 9 months ago
 
Please include 3 annotated citations to scholarly web resources focused on one of the following topics about the Jivaro - History, Tradition and Change, Contact with the West, Family Organization, Economic Organization, Headhunting, Mining in the Area. All citations should be written in American Anthropologist style and placed alphabetically by author last name.

 

American Anthropologist cheat sheet

 


 

Here is an example of how we would like students to provide their information. First, begin with your contact information (name, e-mail address, and date of post) Second, include the citation of your desired material in American Anthropologist style. Third, add your annotation of the scholarly material (what is the item about? In your mind, what makes it scholarly?). An annotation does not need to be more than 2-3 sentences long, but be as complete and thorough as you would like.

 

[K. Hoffman, kdhoffman@geneseo.edu - 8/20]

 

Coe, Michael

2002 Mexico. NY: Thames & Hudson.

 

A thoughtful and informational book covering all aspects of Mexico, including . . . This source can be considered scholarly because Michael Coe is a major authority on all things Mexico and his work has been cited by hundreds of other authors. Coe's specialization is within the field of . . .

 


[Elen De Oliveira, emd10@geneseo.edu, 10/15]

 

1. Steel, Daniel

1999 Trade Goods and Jívaro Warfare: The Shuar 1850–1957, and the Achuar, 1940–1978. The American Society for Ethnohistory. electronic document. accessed 15 October 2007http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/ethnohistory/v046/46.4steel.html

 

This article gives alot of information on the Jivaro including warfare, historical and cultural background and the head hunting raids. This source can be considered scholarly because all references are listed and seem to be good sources. It is also relatively up to date.

 

2. Taylor, Ann Christine

Remebering to Forget: Identity, Mourning and Memory among the Jivaro.Proquest. electronic document. accessed 15 October 2007http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=7272004&sid=2&Fmt=2&clientId=12447&RQT=309&VName=PQD

 

This article covers the Jivaro tradition of "disremembering" the dead. This article can be considered scholarly becuase it is from a very reputable source, references are listed, and the author has written other articles as well for journals such as this one.

 

3. Rubenstein, Steven Lee

2007 CIRCULATION, ACCUMULATION AND THE POWER OF SHRUNKEN HEADS. anthrosource.electronic document. accessed Oct 19 2007 http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/can.2007.22.3.357

 

This article goes over the ritual of shrinking heads which the Jivaro are most known for. It is a recent, up to date article, and is recommended by a great anthropology source. It is from the journal Cultral Anthropology and is published by the university presses, all of which made it a scholarly article.

 

 

[Jonathon Baker, jlb22@geneseo.edu, 10/17]

 

Scholarly Research: Jivaro

Amazon Alliance

2005 The Camisea Project. Electronic Document, http://www.amazonalliance.org/camisea.html, accessed October 17, 2007.

This website discusses a pipeline project that will cross the Peruvian Amazon, the Andes, and extend to the coast. It will impact the environment and the native tribes of the Amazon Basin in Peru. The article is scholarly because it appears on the site of a large organization dedicated to defending the rights of the people indigenous to the Amazon Basin.

Amazon Alliance

2002 Scientists Challenge Claims of U.S. State Department that Aerial Eradication in Colombia is Safe for Humans and Environment. Electonic Document, http://www.amazonalliance.org/press.pdf, accessed October 17, 2007.

This website shows a press release that discusses how US spraying of herbicide on drug crops in Colombia is not safe for the health of 58 indigenous tribes of the region. The article bashes the US government for infringing on the rights of the tribes that have lived in the region for thousands of years. The article is scholarly because it appears on the site of a large organization dedicated to defending the rights of the people indigenous to the Amazon Basin.

 

 

University of California: Santa Barbara

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast Ecuador. Electronic Document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html, accessed October 17, 2007.

This is a large website that covers many of the topics we were asked to look for including: environment, politics, economics, oil companies in the region, and other ethnographic data. It also contains great pictures of the Jivaro and their world. The website can be trusted as scholarly because it was published by UCSB.

-END-

 

[Dave Roberts, dlr4@geneseo.edu, 10-18]

 

Micheal Harner

1962. Jivaro Souls. http://www.jstor.org/view/00027294/ap020340/02a00020/0?currentResult=00027294%2bap020340%2b02a00020%2b0%2cFFFF&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Djivaro%2Bdead%26wc%3Don. Electronic Document. accessed 18 October 2007.

 

This website discusses Jivaro beliefs towards the dead and the collection of souls. Much of the emphasis in on new data that was collected in 1956 and 1957. Although the article is quite old, it can still provide a view into the Jivaro, even one more valuable in capturing their culture before more Westernization inevitably took place. This article is scholarly becaue it was written by a professor at UC Berkeley and it has been cited by other scholarly sources.

 

Anne Christine Taylor

1993. Remembering To Forget: Identity, Mourning and Memory Among The Jivaro. http://www.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993969/99p0291a/0?currentResult=00251496%2bdm993969%2b99p0291a%2b0%2cF3B1FD05&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Djivaro%2Bkinship%2BAND%2Bmarriage%26wc%3Don. Electronic Document. Accessed 18 October 2007.

 

This article addresses the Jivaro's cognitive aspects of mourning. To them, it is a process of "disremembering." It's author, Anne Christine Taylor, also wrote another article on the Amazonian perspective on "being human."

 

E. Sunderland, Elizabeth Coope

1969. The Jivaro: Quantitative Digital Dermatoglyphics. http://www.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993873/99p0852t/. Electronic Document. Accessed 18 October 2007.

 

This article describes the quantitative digital dermatoglyphics of a sample of Jivaro. In other words, it's about their fingerprints. This article is scholarly because it was written by two university professors and it has been cited by scholarly sources.

 

END

 

 

 

[Larkin Kimmerer, llk5@geneseo.edu, 10-19]

Shuar Research

 

The Shuar Life History Project. http://www.uoregon.edu/~ablackwe/shuar/shuar_life_history_project.htm. Electronic Document. Accessed 19 October 2007.

This webpage is the intro page for a program with UOregon and UC Santa Barbara to conduct extensive research on the Shuar and help them; the project is also done in part with the Shuar Federation. I thought this was interesting because it's for graduate students at UO--which is where I want to go!

 

The Rosetta Project

Shuar Language. http://www.rosettaproject.org/archive/jiv. Electronic Document. Accessed 19 October 2007.

The Rosetta Project is a Stanford/NSF project which seeks to document and give information about indigenous languages, so it's pretty legitimate. This is a very basic webpage with some information about the classification of languages in the Shuar language family.

 

Schiter, Eric

The Jivaro and Shuar of the NorthWest Amazon: Who are they and what is their status?. http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/EJ.HTM.

Electronic Document. Accessed 19 October 2007.

This is an article by a PhD student at UCSanta Barbara on his own webpage, so at least we know he is an educated person. It covers everything, from history to kinship to language to subsistence to population.

 

-END-

 

 

 

[Dilek Canakci, dc11@geneseo.edu, 10/18]

 

Steel, Daniel

1999 Trade Goods and Jívaro Warfare: The Shuar 1850–1957, and the Achuar, 1940–1978. The American Society for Ethnohistory. Electronic document, accessed October 18, 2007, http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/ethnohistory/v046/46.4steel.html

 

 

This article the warfare, historical and cultural background of the Jivaro. This website is scholarly because it provides references for all information and is connected to a major organization.

 

 

 

 

Amazon Alliance

2002 Scientists Challenge Claims of U.S. State Department that Aerial Eradication in Colombi is Safe for Humans and Environment. Electonic Document, http://www.amazonalliance.org/press.pdf, accessed October 17, 2007.

This website shows a press release that discusses how US spraying of herbicide on drug crops in Colombia is not safe for the health of 58 indigenous tribes of the region. The article bashes the US government for infringing on the rights of the tribes that have lived in the region for thousands of years. The article is scholarly because it appears on the site of a large organization dedicated to defending the rights of the people indigenous to the Amazon Basin.

University of California: Santa Barbara

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast Ecuador. Electronic Document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html, accessed October 17, 2007.

This is a large website that covers many of the topics we were asked to look for including: environment, politics, economics, oil companies in the region, and other ethnographic data. It also contains great pictures of the Jivaro and their world. The website can be trusted as scholarly because it was published by UCSB.

 

 

 


[Heather Warren, hrw1@geneseo.edu, 10/19]

 

 

Jivaro/Shuar Web Sources

 

Bennett, Bradley C.

1997 Plant Spirit Medicine. Electronic document, http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/HerbalGram/articleview.asp?a=1275, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

 

Abstract: This article talks gives a synopsis of a book called Plant Spirit Medicine by Eliot Cowan which discusses how different cultures, including the Jivaro, used plants as medicine and for healing. This site is scholarly because the author is a scholar who has published several articles and books ( checked Google Scholar ). Furthermore, bibliographical references are available and the article is fairly recent. This site is a good starting point for understanding plant spirit medicine and offers some good places to go for further research.

 

 

Santos-Granero, Fernando

2007 Of Fear and Friendship: Amazonian Sociality Beyond Kinship and Affinity. Electronic document, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2007.00410.x?cookieSet=1, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

 

Abstract: This document discusses social interaction between people in the varying Jivaro/Shuar tribes. This source is scholarly because it was written by a scholar ( searched Google Scholar ) and was published in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, a scholarly publication. The author also sited many sources.

 

 

Schniter, Eric

2000 Jivaroans / Ethnography. Electronic document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

 

Abstract: This site gives a large amount of information on the Jivaro. It is scholarly because not only does it include source information, but it was also written by a PhD student in anthropology at the University of California ( PhD students must do in-depth studies ) who has published many times. Again, it is a good starting place and checking the sources he used, as well as emailing him would also be a good idea, just for validity’s sake.

 

 

END

 

[Lanh Nguyen, ltn2@geneseo.edu, 10/20]

 

Jivaro Reseacrh

1. Eric Schniter

N/A. The Jivaro and Shuar of the NorthWest Amazon: Who are they and what is their status? Electronic Document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/EJ.HTM accessed october 20, 2007.

 

 

This website talks about who the Jivaro people are. Schniter explains their social organizations, religious and traditional ways, marriage roles, and describes their location and environment in depth. This website is scholarly because Schniter I is an antrhopologist who studies culture and has had many publications in universities.

2. Reddish, Laura

2007. Shuar (Jivaro). Electronic document, http://www.nativelanguages.org/navajo.htm, accessed October 20, 2007.

This website has links to languages of the Jivaro as well as information on their history and culture.This website is scholarly because it has contact information (one of the contact includes a Cherokee man who has done work in linguistic preservation with many Indian languages of Oklahoma- Orrin Lewis)

    • , the editor of the website specializes in language studies with the Eskimo/Inuit (through Google scholar on Laura Redish, I found a few other works by her that were credible), and this site is a non profit website dedicated to the survival of Native American languages.

3. The Nunink Nunkai Foundation

N/A. Nunkui Shuar Preservation. Electronic document, http://www.nunkui-shuar.org/how2help.htm, accessed October 20, 2007.

This website is apart of a foundation that is aimed towards perserving the Shuar culture. ALL of the profits are sent directly to the Shuar community. This website is scholarly because the organization is a national one that was started by Raúl Nunink Pacuar, a native Shuar individual whose main goal is to preserve the culture of his people.

 

-EnD-


 

[Jennifer Ritzenthaler, jkr5@geneseo.edu, 10/22/07]

Jivaro Websites

 

1.

Aufderheide, Arthur C. 2003

The Scientific Study of Mummies. Electronic document, http://books.google.com/books?id=P_xj3QTHHvoC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=jivaro+head+hunting&source=web&ots=BoJLAxumvw&sig=xZotn-ORAr-emx_krbW0uiGXqO8#PPA31,M1, accessed October 20, 2007.

 

This is a web-book that looks at the study of mummies around the world. The author explores reasons why people mummify bodies and how the bodies are preserved. His research includes head hunting and shrinking by the Jivaro culture. It could be considered scholarly since the Cambridge University Press published it and it has multiple sources and a lengthy index. Also relevant is that the author is a Professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Minnesota Duluth.

 

2.

Dennett, Daniel

2006 Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Electronic document, http://www.scribd.com/doc/268427/Dennett-Daniel-Breaking-the-Spell-Religion-as-a-Natural-Phenomenon, accessed October 20, 2007.

 

This web-book looks at the evolution of religion across cultures. It looks at the belief of the Jivaro of Ecuador that a person has three souls. It can be considered scholarly since Jared Diamond, a noted author of works pertaining to anthropological study, critiqued it, and it has multiple sources and an informative index. Also, the author is a University Professor, professor of philosophy, and co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University.

 

3.

Cowan, Eliot

1995 Plant Spirit Medicine. Electronic document, http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/HerbalGram/articleview.aspa=1275, accessed October 20, 2007.

 

An informative website that looks at the uses of plants as psychoactive drugs in religion. It describes how the Jivaro believe that the physical world is artificial and using psychoactive substances helps one to discover the “real world”. The site can be considered scholarly since it was in The Journal of the American Botanical Council and has multiple sources.

 

END.

 

{Isobel Connors, icc2@geneseo.edu, 10/22}

 

Native Language of the Americas

2007 Shuar (Jivaro). Electronic document, http://www.native-languages.org/shuar.htm, accessed . October 22, 2007

 

This site offers a variety of links to sites on the Jivaro organized by language, culture and history, and literary works written on the Jivaro. The site is reputable because it is associated with the linguist Laura Redish who works to preserve Indian languages. Also, the site offers other scholarly sources for viewers to examine.

Nunink, Wendy Girard

Shuar: Talking with Ecuadorian Amazon Medicine Men. Electronic document, http://www.ratical.org/LifeWeb/Articles/shuar.html, accessed . October 22, 2007

This website is a translation of interviews with medicine man Elisabet Sahtouris, who describes Jivaro religious traditions, calendar, and the importance of women in the culture. The site can be considered scholarly in that it is a direct account of a member of the Jivaro tribe.

Schniter, Eric

Jivaroans/Ethnography. Electronic document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, accessed . October 22, 2007

This site gives an overview of aspects of Jivaro culture, including subsistence patterns, shamanism, and head-hunting. The site can be considered scholarly because it sites scholarly sources both within the document, and at the end of the page.

 

END

 

[Shamiran Warda, sw11@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

Steel, Daniel

1999 Trade Goods and Jívaro Warfare: The Shuar 1850–1957, and the Achuar, 1940–1978. The American Society for Ethnohistory. Electronic Document. http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/ethnohistory/v046/46.4steel.html, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article discusses the warfare, historical and cultural background of the Jivaro. This website is scholarly in that it provides notes and references for all information at the very end. In addition, the way it is written and broken up indicates that the author put forth a great deal of time, for instance before the author started writing his findings he let the reader what the main abstract of his work would reveal.

University of California: Stanta Barbara

 

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast EcuadorOctober 22, 2007. . Electronic Document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html, accessed

 

Abstract: This website discuss numerous topics about the Jivaro people, from where their name originated from to where the live and how they live, which I must say was very interesting to read about. This website is scholarly in that it not only covers a wide range of details on this group of people but in that it provides sources at the very end of each section. Lastly, this website is linked to the University of California; therefore, the information provided can be indeed trusted.

Rubenstein, Steven Lee

2007 Circulation, Accumulation and the Power of the Shrunken Heads. anthrosource. Electronic Document. http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/can.2007.22.3.357, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract:** This article briefly discussed the Jivaro background and then went in a greater depth talking about the Jivaro’s ritual of shrunken heads. What makes this article a scholarly article is that it is up to date and is publication in the journal Cultural Anthropology by the university presses. The information provided is also very useful and well written.

 

 

 

[Dan Lilly, djl5@geneseo.edu, 10/22/07]

 

Schniter, Eric

2000 Jivaroans/Ethnography. Electronic document. http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, October 22, 2007

 

 

This very informative site has a great amount of information on the Jivaro, with links to information about each specific tribe. Obviously, it discusses the tsantsa and shamans as well as subsistence strategies and gender roles. Schniter is a professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

 

Steel, Daniel

1999 Trade Goods and Jivaro Warfare: The Shuar 1850-1957, and the Achuar, 1940-1978. Ethnohistory 46(4), http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0014-1801%28199923%2946%3A4%3C745%3ATGAJWT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This article discusses the changes Jivaro society underwent with the introduction of more modern weapons, such as firearms. He believes that certain people in society are able to pursuade a great many others into war by use of these new technological weapons, and so, therefore, that they instigate more wars. Steel is a philosophy professor at Michigan State University.

 

Harner, Michael J.

1962 Jivaro Souls. American Anthropologist 64(2),http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28196204%292%3A64%3A2%3C258%3AJS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J" _fcksavedurl=">http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28196204%292%3A64%3A2%3C258%3AJS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J" href="http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28196204%292%3A64%3A2%3C258%3AJS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J" class="linkification-ext">http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28196204%292%3A64%3A2%3C258%3AJS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This article discusses religion among the Jivaro, specifically idea of multiple souls. Jivaro warriors believe that by killing an enemy, they gain that persons soul, and collecting these souls leads to immortality. It also discusses the cultural implications of these beliefs on the warlike Jivaro. Harner is the founder of the Foundation for Shamanic Studies.

 

END

 

 

 

Jivaro

 

[Anne Kim, ak13@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

 

Greene, Shane

2005 The Shaman's Needle: Development, Shamanic Agency, and Intermedicality in Aguaruna Lands, Peru, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/ae.1998.25.4.634?prevSearch=%28jivaro%29+AND+%5Bkeyphrase%3A+%22development%22%5D, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

Greene compares analyzes the development in medicine, curing, and specific shamanic session. This article discusses the medical development, which demonstrates the social agency for native practitioners.

 

 

 

Gross, Daniel R.Protein Capture and Cultural Development in the Amazon Basin, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/aa.1975.77.3.02a00040?prevSearch=%28jivaro%29+AND+%5Bkeyphrase%3A+%22development%22%5D, accessed October 22, 2007.

2004

 

This paper examines the aboriginal societies of the Amazon Basin. Previous discussions have focused mainly on agricultural potential. Evidence is presented from ethnography and ecology suggesting that fish and game are scarce, particularly away from major rivers. The effects which this limitation may have on Amazonian culture are discussed.

 

Whiting, John W. M.

2004 Winter Temperature as a Constraint to the Migration of Preindustrial Peoples, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/aa.1982.84.2.02a00020?prevSearch=%28jivaro%29+AND+%5Bkeyphrase%3A+%22language%22%5D, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

The dispersion of preindustrial peoples is strongly related to winter temperature in two surprising respects. This study is based on a classification of societies by language. It introduces a statistical model to show that winter temperature isotherm has been an effective constraint to migration and expansion, and the dispersion of language phyla has been remarkably homogeneous in a certain temperature scale.

 

END

 

[Kaitlyn Northrop, krn3@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

 

 

Native Languages of the Americas

2007 Shuar(Jivaro) Language. Native Languages of the Americas. Electronic Document, http://www.native-languages.org/shuar.htm, accessed 21 October 2007

 

This site gives many links to websites that go into detail on things such as Shuar language, history, and rituals. It would be considered scholarly because it is originally created by a Cherokee man, who would have firsthand information about all of the information listed. It is now kept up by Laura Redish, a linguist, who would also have firsthand information from researching and spending time with the tribes involved.

 

University of California: Santa Barbara

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast Ecuador. Electronic Document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html, accessed October 17, 2007.

 

This site gives a lot of information on general things such as environment, economics, politics, etc. It goes into detail on reasons why the Jivaro do not like that name as well as giving some detail on head shrinking. It is scholarly because it contains many sources of information that must have been researched extensively. It would also be considered scholarly because it is published and kept up by the University of California.

 

Aufderheide, Arthur C.

2003 The Scientific Study of Mummies. Electronic document, http://books.google.com/books?id=P_xj3QTHHvoC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=jivaro+head+hunting&source=web&ots=BoJLAxumvw&sig=xZotn-ORAr-emx_krbW0uiGXqO8#PPA31,M1, accessed October 20, 2007.

 

This site goes in depth into how te Jivaro go about the head shrinking and why it is so significant to them. It also tells about some of their beliefs and rituals. It would be considered scholarly because it was written by a man who studied the Jivaro extensively and therefore has a firsthand account of what actually happened among them.

 

END

 

[Adam Saunderes, ars11@geneseo.edu, 10/22/07]

 

 

Schniter, Eric

2000 Jivaroans / Ethnography. Electronic document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, accessed October 22, 2007.

-This site encompasses much of what an Ethnographer would like at in a culture. It gives a basic overview and also talks about the cultures various subsistence strategies. The ideology and ritual practices as also discussed briefly. What this site is especially useful for is to see the people that are also associated with the Jivaro. It gives links to sites that pertain to those cultures as well.

 

Redish, Laura and Orrin Lewis

2007 Shuar (Jivaro). Electronic document, http://www.native-languages.org/shuar.htm, accessed October 22, 2007.

-Another page from Laura Redish’s page of language this time focusing on the Jivaro language called Shuar. This page gives a very in depth look at the Shuar language offering resources and various other cultural links to Jivaro resources as well as giving specific books that are related to the site that one interested in the language may want to purchase.

 

END

 

(Cameron Mack, cfm6@geneseo.edu, 10/22)

 

Scholarly Research on Jivaro

 

Rubenstein, Steven Lee

2007 Circulation, Accumulation, and the Power of Shrunken Heads. Cultural Anthropology 22(3): 357-399. Anthrosource, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/can.2007.22.3.357, accessed October 21, 2007.

Rubenstein analyzes the most popular aspect of the Jivaro culture, the shrunken heads. The author, who hails from the University of Liverpool, can be trusted to provide a detailed account of the Jivaro tribe, which he succeeded in accomplishing. The article is incredibly interesting and delves into a strange and unique phenomenon known as shrinking heads; which, for some reason, is now outlawed.

University of California at Santa Barbara

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast Ecuador. Electronic document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html, accessed October 21, 2007.

This website on the Shuar (Jivaro) provides the reader with an abundance of information and links on many aspects of their culture. This source is much broader than some of the other, more specific articles that I have been sighting; however, that in no way detracts from the idea of the site being scholarly. For one, the website was created by the University of California at Santa Barbara, which is, in fact, a scholarly source for information. This source was interesting and enjoyable to read about, and provided a ton of great information.

Native Languages of the Americas

2007 Shuar (Jivaro). Electronic document, http://native-languages.org/shuar.htm, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

 

This site provides many different links to scholarly sources. The site itself is scholarly because of the credibility of Laura Reddish, who works to preserve their language. The links are organized in a group manner that assists in searching for appropriate sources.

 

(Lok Yung Yam, ly5@geneseo.edu, 10/22)

 

Stirling, Matthew W.

1933 Head Hunters of the Amazon. The Scientific Monthly 36(3):264-266. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article talks about the background of head shrinking in Jivaro culture. It goes into Jivaro traditions and the reasoning behind head shrinking. It is scholarly because it was published in a scientific journal and screened by JSTOR.

Lewis, Walter H. and Memory P. Elvin-Lewis

1993 Medicinal Plants as Sources of New Therapeutics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82(1). JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article talks about the herbs and plants the Jivaro use for healthcare. It lists some of the thousands of plants and their medicinal uses. IT is scholarly because it was published in a scientific journal specifically tailored for this field, and it was screened by JSTOR.

Métraux, Alfred

1946 Twin Heroes in South American Mythology. The Journal of American Folklore 59 (232): 114-123. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article tells Jivaro myths and explains their cultural significance, as well as their possible origins. It is scholarly beause it was published in a journal that specialized in folklore and was screened by JSTOR.

 

Alfred Dilluvio Ajd12@geneseo.edu 10/23/07

 

 

University of California at Santa Barbara

2000 The Shuar: Hunter-Horticulturalist Amazonians of Southeast Ecuador. Electronic document, http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/index.html accessed October 20, 2007.

The webpage is loaded with references to articles appearing in scholarly journals.

 

 

 

 

Rubenstein, Steven Lee

2007 Circulation, Accumulation, and the Power of Shrunken Heads. Cultural Anthropology 22(3): 357-399. Anthrosource, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/can.2007.22.3.357, accessed October 20, 2007.

The author is a professor whose work is appearing in a scholarly journal. I think it is safe to say it is scholarly

Schniter, Eric

2000 Jivaroans/Ethnography. Electronic document. http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~eschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, October 23, 2007

 

This is a link off one of the scholarly site I found. It is an article containing references to other sources.

 

 

 

 

[Steph Aquilina, sma8@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

Jivaro/Shuar Scholarly Web Research

 

Amazon Alliance

2003 June 2003 Investigative Mission to Indigenous Communities Affected By the Camisea Project – Upper and Lower Urubamba River Valley, Peru.

Environmental Defense. Pp. 1-6. Electronic document, http://www.amazonalliance.org/findings.pdf, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This article describes findings for the Camisea Project in various communities in Peru. The project consists of extracting hundreds of millions of liquid petroleum gas, which potentially has a significantly large threat to the environment, the health, and the rights of native peoples to that area. It is scholarly because it is published by a sizeable organization dedicated to preserving indigenous rights, which is partnered with other national organizations in several different countries.

 

 

Jezic, Tamara and Jochnick, Chris

2000 The Meaning of Legal Victory in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Carnie Council for Ethics in International Affairs. Electronic document, http://

www.cceia.org/resources/publications/dialogue/2_02/articles/616.html, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This article describes the politics that the Shuar must face in order to preserve their Amazonian territory. It is scholarly because it was published by the Carnegie Council.

 

 

Larson, Mildred L.

1963 Emic classes which manifest the obligatory tagmemes in major independent clause types of Aguaruna (Jivaro). In Studies in Peruvian Indian

Languages, 1. Waterhouse, Viola G., ed. Pp. 1-36. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields.

Electronic document, Ethnologue, http://www.sil.org/acpub/repository/11364.pdf, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This paper discusses linguistic features in Jivaro speech. It is scholarly because the author has published several related scholarly sources, as researched on Google Scholar. END

 

[Dan McConvey, dpm5@geneseo.edu, 9/23]

 

 

Blackwell, Aaron

2000 The Shuar Life History Project.  Electronic Document,

http://www.uoregon.edu/~ablackwe/shuar/shuar_life_history_project.htm, accessed on October 23, 2007.

 

This article is about the child psychology process used on the Shuar health, subsistence, economy, parenting, reasoning, and demography.  This article is about early stages of this childhood analysis.

                This article is scholarly because it is written by Aaron Blackwell who is part of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Oregon.  This article and project is interesting because it is still in the infantile stages.  The information isn’t as scholarly as much as the potential that this project has to obtain a variety of new information.

 

 

Schniter, Eric

Jivarons/Ethnography.  Electronic Document,

http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/%7Eeschniter/AMAZONIA/ethno.html, accessed on October 23, 2007.

 

 

This article gives an overview of the jivaron’s three main sources of subsistence: farming, hunting and fishing, and gathering.  This article also cover headhunting and shamanism within the culture.

                This article is scholarly because all of the work is well referenced and extensively done by the Ph.D. student Eric Schniter within the Department of Anthropology in the University of California, Santa Barbara.

 

 

Amazon Alliance

2003 Investigative Mission to Indigenous Communities Affected By the Camisea

Project. Upper and Lower Urubamba River Valley, Peru. Electronic Document,

http://www.amazonalliance.org/findings.pdf, accessed on October 23, 2007.

2007 Review of The Jívaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls by Micheal J. Harner. Electronic Document, http://www.shamanism.org/products/bk103.html, accessed December 14,2007.

 

This paper gives a description of the effects of the Camisea project on Indigenous Communities.  The paper covers all of the environmental factors of this project.  The plans that are instated to protect these commuties have been see as ineffective, untransparent, and in most cases ignored by the company entirely.

This article is scholarly because it is a part of the Amazon Alliance.  This organization works to defend the rights, territories and environment of indigenous and traditional people of the Amazon basin. 

 

-END-

 

Jivaro Charlie Genao Cg7@geneseo.edu 10/22/07

1. Steel, Daniel.

1999. Trade Goods and Jivaro Warfare: The Shaur 1850 to 1957 and the Achuar 1940 1978. Ethnohistory 46(4): 745-776, http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/ethnohistory/v046/46.4steel.html,  accessed October 22, 2007.

Annotations: It describes the historical changes of the Jivaro in regards to warfare. The article goes on explaining the fact that better weapons gave more rise to warfare and it connects to their shrinking head practices. I think it is scholarly because it comes from JSTOR but more importantly the author’s background. Daniel steel works at the University of Pittsburgh as a professor.

2. The Foundation for Shamanic Studies.

 

Annotation: This article talks about the Jivaro in general. He covers thier history culture and social Relations, Kinship Subsistence Shamans and how they do the things they do. Basically this book covers everything. I know it scholarly because it was founded by the internationally known anthropolgist Michael Harner and his site is dedicated to Shamatic studies.

 

 

3.

Jamieson, William 

            2005  The History of the Shaur: Gallery. Eletronic Document, http://www.head-hunter.com/gallery.html, accessed             October 26, 2007.

Annotation:This stie talks about the Jivaro especally the warfare and the shrinking heads It covers some of its history as well. It is scholarly because when you click on the source tab it shows a very extensive biblography.  

 

 

[Rebecca Coons, rsc2@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

 

Scholarly Research (Jivaro)

 

Stirling,  Matthew W.

         1933 Jivaro Shamanism in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, electronic

         document. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X(1933)72%3A3%3C137%3AJS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T

         accessed 15 December 2007.

 

* This article goes into detail regarding the shrunken head ritual of the Jivaro as well as other aspects of their religion and the significance of shamanism in Jivaro culture. Since this article was published by the American Philosophical Society for their journal, it can be regarded as scholarly and accessed via JSTOR.

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