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Navaho - Scholarly Research on the Web

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 9 months ago

 

[Rebecca Coons, rsc2@geneseo.edu, 10/23/07

Gilliland, Frank D

2000.Uranium Mining and Lung Cancer Among Navajo Men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993. In Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

 

This article states that Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. It details some of the health risks associated with the mining. It is scholarly, accessed via google scholar, because it was published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. It is not a free site however and I was only able to login and search because my family subscribed to this journal at one point.

Aberle, David Friend

1983 Peyote religion among the Navajo, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/e/ehraf/ehraf-idx?c=ehrafe;view=doc;subview=ocm;id=NT13-202;owc=NT13, acessed 21 October 2007.

This site details the use of peyote in Navajo culture. It is a .edu site so it can already be seen as more scholarly than a .com site. Since it is referenced by the Bureau of Indian Affairs it can definitely be considered a scholarly source.

 

Brugge, Doug and Goble, Rob.

2002 The history of uranium mining and the Navajo people. American Journal of Public Health.. Electronic document,

http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/92/9/1410, accessed 21 October 2007.

This is yet another published document on the effects of Uranium mining on Navajo people. It is scholarly as it was published by a well known medical journal and is cited in other works I had found on Google scholar.

 

[Skye Naslund, sjn1@geneseo.edu 10-22-07]

Three Web Sites on the Navaho

 

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development of Canada

2004 Inuit Information Sheet. Electronic document,

http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info /info114_e.html, accessed October 2,

2007.

 

Abstract: This website provides a good overview of the history of the

relationship between the Canadian government and the Inuit. While it is

biased toward the Canadians as it is a government site, it does a good job

explaining interaction with the natives as a whole.

 

Mitchell, Marybelle

2007 Inuit Co-operatives: The Canadian Encyclopedia. Electronic

document,

http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0004042, accessed October 2, 2007.

 

Abstract: This site talks about the economy of Inuit society. The site

specifically addresses the Inuit co-operative system established in the

late 1950s as an economic security net for the Inuit people.

 

The Navajo Nation

2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation. Electronic document, http://www.navajo.org/history.htm, accessed October 17, 2007.

 

Annotation: This site details a brief history of the Navaho people as well as explains the government structure of the Navaho nation today. Though this site is not written by a professor or other scholar, it is a product of the Navaho Nation itself thereby adding to the value of the source. The site represents current insight into Navaho life today.

 

McPherson, Robert S.
1988 Navajo Indians. Electronic Document.
This is an article written by Robert McPherson who has written numerous books about the Navajo and other Native American groups. The website is technically devoted to the history of Utah but this specific portion of it is all about the Navajo. This website is scholarly primarily because it is a .gov site and also because it is written by a published author in the study of the Navajo.
National Museum of the American Indian
2007 Native Words, Native Warriors. Electronic document, http://www.nmai.si.edu/education/codetalkers/html/index.html, accessed October 17, 2007.
 
This website is backed by the Smithsonian Institute which lends to its credit as a scholarly source. It describes the use of native Navajo speakers during World War II in helping the U.S. communicate without being code-broken by the enemy.

 

Abstract: This site includes a lot of information on Navajo ceremonies, traditions, myths, culture, geography, and more. Adriana C. Rissetto includes references for all of her findings,

alternative versions/interpretations on some topics, and she is very thorough with everything on the site.

Although this website wouldn’t be considered scholarly, I included it because she did fieldwork with Navajo Indians and then documented her findings in her master’s thesis along with this website. Other than this, I couldn’t find anything else that was published by Adriana.

Rissetto, C. Adriana

1997 Four Sacred Mountains. Electronic document, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA97/dinetah/front.html, accessed September 26, 2007.

Abstract: This website provides us with numerous healthcare centers available, cross cultural medicine, info on the Navajo Nation, and other information on the healthcare of American Indians. I would consider this website to be scholarly due to the fact that it’s a government site; which would imply that all of the information provided is trustworthy and legit.

 

Navajo Area Indian Health Service (NAIHS)

 

2007 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Indian Health Services: The federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Electronic document, http://www.ihs.gov/FacilitiesServices/AreaOffices/Navajo/index.asp, accessed September 26, 2007.

 

END

 

[Jennifer Ritzenthaler, jkr5@geneseo.edu 9/27/07]

 

Websites on the Navajo

 

Joe, Jennie Rose and Robert S. Young. 1993. Diabetes as a Disease of Civilization: The Impact of Culture Change on Indigenous Peoples. Electronic document,http://books.google.com/books?id=Io0sdbsTK08C&pg=PA376&lpg=PA376&dq=navajo+sickness+and+health&source=web&ots=DWsdM5rxuI&sig=5mw8G6JcCJv_R8Xbm1TRUNX7UFg#PPA272,M1, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

Abstract: An overview of Navajo life and education is given. It describes the Navajo beliefs in the origin of diabetes. Data was taken from open-ended interview questions, observation, and participation in community activities. It is a published book with a bibliography and quotes from some of those interviewed.

 

Navajo Uranium Radiation Victims. Electronic document, http://sonic.net/~kerry/uranium.html, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

Abstract: This website tells about how the Navajo mined uranium for a United States atomic weapons program. In 1990, the U.S. Congress authorized payment to some of those who had died mining this uranium and testimony of the events was heard. The website has pictures, charts, links, and a reference to a more up-to-date and detailed account of the events in book form.

 

Norrell, Brenda. 1998. Education reform elevates status of Navajo-controlled education. Electronic document,

http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411394, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

Abstract: This website describes how state lawmakers in the Southwest succeeded in passing English-only legislation, but the Navajo Nation Council passed the Dine' Sovereignty in Education Act to promote Dine' language and culture in schools on the Navajo Nation. It is a newspaper article which has quotations from the governmental proceedings.

 

[Skye Naslund, sjn1@geneseo.edu 9-27-07]

Navajo Sites

 

 

Lewton, EL and V. Bydone

2000 Identity and Healing in Three Navajo Religious Traditions: sa"ah naagháí bik'eh hózh. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14(4):476-97. Google Scholar, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/" class="linkification-ext">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/" class="linkification-ext">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11224977&dopt=Citation, accessed September 27, 2007.

Abstract: This article was very interesting. It talks about the concept of health in Navajo culture both in traditional religions and in religions with Christian influences. The article addresses family relations as it pertains to health and the bonds between a family and the spirit world.

Anyon, Roger, Ferguson, T.J., Jackson, Loretta, and Lillie Lane

1994 Native American Oral Traditions and Archaeology. Electronic document, http://www.saa.org/publications/SAAbulletin/14-2/SAA14.html, accessed September 27, 2007.

Abstract: This site was fascinating in that it showed the combination of using oral traditional, a form of cultural anthropology, and archaeology together to gain a better perspective on Navajo life. The article discusses the sensitivities needed in the use of oral tradition as well as how to best interpret that information.

 

Milne, Derek and Wilson Howard

2000 Rethinking the Role of Diagnosis in Navajo Religious Healing. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14(4): 543-570. AnthroSource, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/" href="http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/" href="http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/" class="linkification-ext">http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/" class="linkification-ext">http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/maq.2000.14.4.543, accessed September 27, 2007.

Abstract: This article examines actual relationships between healers and the ill in Navajo culture. It establishes the diagnosis process as a rite of passage into the healing process. The article compares western diagnosis to diagnosis in traditional Navajo culture.

 

[Elen De Oliveira, emd10@geneseo.edu  9/28]

 

Scholarly articles on the Navajo

 

1. Jett, Stephen C.

3 September 1978. The Origins of Navajo Settlement Patterns. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Last Accessed 28 September 2007<http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/action/showPdf?submitPDF=Full+Text+PDF+%281%2C273+KB%29&doi=10.1111%2Fj.1467-8306.1978.tb01199.x>

 

Abstract: This article covers an extensive amount of navajo history, although it focuses on the settlement patterns. Although it is not a recent document by any means, it is still scholarly becuase the information it covers about the history and settlement patterns of these people most likely havenn't changed since this was written. The author includes all of his sources for his information and he himself if a credible source as he is associate professor of geography at the University of California.

 

2. Kunitz, Stephen, J.

2006. Life-Course Observation of Alcohol use among Navajo Indians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Accessed 3 October 2007http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdf/10.1525/maq.2006.20.3.279

 

Abstract: This article goes into detail about alcohol use among the NAvajo men, women, and teens. It discusses reasons for alcohol abuse, likelihood of remission, and the difference between men and women among other topics. There are charts and graphs as well to further increase understanding of the subject. All of the authors sources are listed and the article is relatively new insuring up to date information. Anthrosource seems to be a very credible source of information as well.

 

3. Benally, Timothy Sr.

20 September 1999. Navajo Uranium Miners Fight for Compensation. Motion Magazine. Accessed 3 October 2007http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/miners.html

 

 

END.


 

[Larkin Kimmerer, llk5@geneseo.edu  9/30]

 

Weaver-Missick, Tara

2001 Boning Up on Navajo Food Habits. Electronic document, http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun01/food0601.htm, accessed September 30, 2007

Abstract: This site outlines an article written about the bone density of Native American populations, especially Navajo populations. Although their diets lack a lot of dairy, they have higher bone densities than Caucasian populations, probably due to minerals in the water. This is a USDA website brief, so it is probably legitimate, if not entirely scholarly.

Southwest Research and Information Center

2007 Uranium Impact Assessment Program. Electronic Document, http://www.sric.org/uranium/index.html, accessed September 30, 2007.

Abstract: This site discusses the compensations given to Navajo communities following the uranium exposure from the 1940’s-1960’s, and the legal action taken in the past and present to fight further exposure. This is a legitimate site, but it could be biased; the organization’s mission statement is “Southwest Research and Information Center is a multi-cultural organization working to promote the health of people and communities, protect natural resources, ensure citizen participation, and secure environmental and social justice now and for future generations.”

Navajo Indian Information

2007 Electronic Document, http://navajo-indian.org/, accessed September 30, 2007

Abstract: This page seems like a legitimate source of information, but it does have some ads on it. I don’t think that it is scholarly, but it seems like a site with good basic starting information for learning more about the Navajo nation and Navajo culture.

END

 

 

 


 

[Heather Warren, hrw1@geneseo.edu, 9/30]

 

Hedlund, Ann Lane

2006 Navajo Weaving at Arizona State Museum: 19th Century Blankets; 20th Century Rugs; 21st Century Views. Electronic document, http://www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/exhibits/navajoweave/index.shtml, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

 

Abstract. This website is the electronic version of a textile exhibition in the Arizona State Museum from October 2004 to May 2005. The links provided on this page give you a variety of articles with great information on different aspects of Navajo weaving. This site is scholarly as the information was provided by Ann Lane Hedlund, a cultural anthropologist who has published many scholarly articles and books (checked this on Google Scholar). Furthermore, the information is very recent and the site kept up to date. In addition, the site is hosted by the Arizona State Museum, which is a scholarly institute. Finally, there is a credits page, which gives further information about the sources.

 

 

 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts

2007 Ketoh. Electronic document, http://www.artsmia.org/world-myths/artbyculture/ketoh_background.html, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

 

Abstract. This article gives a bit of background on the Navajo and describes the crafting and background of the Ketoh, or wrist guard made by the Navajo. This article is scholarly because it is hosted by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Sources for the information presented in the article are included in the article. At least one of the authors included in the sources is scholarly (since I found him on Google Scholar). Even though the article itself does not contain a date it was written, since I searched for material published on the web (through Google) within the last year, the article must also have been created within the last year. Finally, the website itself is kept up to date on a regular basis.

 

 

 

National Museum of the American Indian

2007 Native Words, Native Warriors. Electronic document, http://www.nmai.si.edu/education/codetalkers/html/index.html, accessed September 27, 2007.

 

Abstract. This website gives some background information on the Navajo and their language briefly before and during WWII and the use of their language as an intelligence code that the enemies of the United States failed to crack. This site is scholarly because it is hosted by the Smithsonian Institute and the National Museum of the American Indian. Furthermore, the article is recent and the website kept up to date. Finally, sources for the information and pictures are provided at the end of and within the article. Furthermore, on the Credits page is also located further resources for the materials.

 

 

-END-


 

[Jonathon Baker, jlb22@geneseo.edu, 10/1]

Navajo—Scholarly Research

Southwest and Information Center

2005 Uranium Impact Assessment Program. Electronic Document.

http://www.sric.org/uranium/index.html, Accessed October 1, 2007.

-This website contains information regarding the government’s handling of the aftermath of the uranium contamination and mistreatment of the workers in the uranium mines through the past few decades. After a brief history of the issue, the organization states its mission to prevent new proposed mines from being opened. The source can be trusted as scholarly as it is a firsthand, grassroots organization that wants to educate people on the terrible disaster that was caused by uranium leeching into drinking water for thousands of Navajo people.

Cindy L. Ehlers, Ph.D., Tamara L. Wall, Ph.D., Michelle Betancourt, B.S. and David A. Gilder, M.D.

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry. “The Clinical Course of Alcoholism in 243 Mission Indians.” Electronic Document.

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/7/1204,

Accessed October 1, 2007

-This website contains an article published in the American Journal of Psychiatry by several MD’s and Ph.D.’s. The results of the article show that there is a correlation between native heritage and the severeness of alcoholism in the study group. The results also show that the alcoholism tends to be much more severe in male Navajo rather then female Navajo. The article is scholarly because it is in a national professional journal, written by professionals, and has lengthy citations at the end.

Northern Arizona University

1998 Colorado Plateau: Land Use History: Navajo (Dine). Electronic Document.

http://cpluhna.nau.edu/People/navajo.htm, Accessed October 1, 2007.

-This website provides a brief history of the Navajo people and how they used the land of the Colorado Plateau. It has several pictures dating back to the 1910s and 1920s. It can be trusted as scholarly because of the fact it is adapted from an article published by a professor and by the fact that it has citations and is on the website of a university that is local to the Navajo.

** ****-END-

 

[Dave Roberts, dlr4@geneseo.edu, 10-3]

 

D. Brugge and R. Goble

The History of Uranium Mining and the Navajo People. Electronic Document.

http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/92/9/1410. Accessed October 3, 2007.

 

-Uranium mining occurred mostly in the southwestern United States and drew many Native Americans and others into work in the mines and mills. The resulting high rates of illness among miners led in 1990 to passage of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. This website is based on a population-based case-control study to examine the association between uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men. It was written by two professors form Tufts and Clark Universities.

 

Thomas J. Csordas

Ritual Healing and the Politics of Identity in Contemporary Navajo Society. Electronic Document.

http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdfplus/10.1525/ae.1999.26.1.3. Accessed October 3, 2007.

 

This website analyzes the contemporary Navajo's relationship between ritual healing and identity politics in an increasingly Americanized society. It is scholarly because it was written by a professor of anthropology and Case Western Reserve University, and has been cited by other scholarly sources.

 

Kathryn Manuelito

The Role of Education in American Indian Self-Determination: Lessons from the Ramah Navajo Community School. Electronic Document.

http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.073. Accessed October 3, 2007.

 

This website is based on study conducted by a Navajo researcher and professor at Arizona State University,about how the Ramah Navajo community defined self-determination and how it was operationalized within the community and school. The study demonstrates how education based on Navajo epistemology has been integral to self-determination at Ramah, underscoring the importance of incorporating Native American epistemologies in schooling for Indigenous students. I think it is scholarly because it has been cited by many scholarly sources and was first published in Anthropology and Education Quarterly.

 

End

 

 

(Cameron Mack, cfm6@geneseo.edu, 10/20)

 

Scholarly Research on the Navajo

 

The Navajo Nation

2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation. Electronic document, http://www.navajo.org/history.htm, accessed October 20, 2007.

For one, this is the official site of the Navajo Nation, making it seem scholarly almost immediately. Upon further reading, I found this to be the case. The website, being an official website, contains information concerning many aspects of the Navajo life; including their government, traditions, museums, and even code talkers.

Lewton, El and V. Bydone

2000 Identity and Healing in Three Navajo Religious Traditions: sa’ah naagghai bik’eh hozh. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14 (4): 476-97. Google Scholar, http://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list _uids=11224977&dopt=Citation, accessed October 20, 2007.

This article was very specific and direct to the point. It discussed the idea of the health of the Navajo tribes/cultures in Christian influenced religions as well as traditional religions. The article also explores family relations as they pertain to the health and bonds between the spirit world and the family. The author is a reliable source. along with the source, making it a scholarly article.

Weaver-Missick, Tara

2001 Boning Up on Navajo Food Habits. Electronic document, http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun01/food0601.htm, accessed October 20, 2007.

This site covers the nutrition of the Navajo currently. It discusses current as well as past studies conducted around the Navajo's food habits. The short article discusses an Elementary Reservation School in Arizona and their eating habits, including results or effects of certain foods they eat.

 

 

 

[Dilek Canakci, dc11@geneseo.edu, 10/04]

Scholarly Research on the Navajo

Begay, H. David.

2000 The Whole Universe is Cathedral: A Contemporary Navajo Spiritual Synthesis. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14:498-520. Electronic document, http://proxy.geneseo.edu:2085/doi/abs/10.1525/maq.2000.14.4.498?prevSearch=navajo+life, accessed October 4, 2007.

This article discusses the three major spiritual healing ways used by Navajo Indians today: Traditional healing practices that have been used for generations and still have a dynamic existence relevant to everyday Navajo life; Christian healing traditions, ranging from Catholic Charismatic to Protestant Pentecostal; and practices of the Native American Church (NAC). The complex relationship among these healing traditions on the Navajo reservation is examined through a case study of a Navajo woman whose personal spirituality includes all three. Faced with serious medical problems, this devout Catholic turned to Navajo Traditional and Native American Church spiritual diagnosis and treatment. This analysis is the occasion for a reflection on the contemporary relevance of the kind of spiritual synthesis characterized in this woman's experience.

Kunitz, J. Stephen.

2006 Life-Course Observations of Alcohol Use among Navajo Indians: Natural History or Careers? Medical Anthropology Quarterly 20:279-296. Electronic document, http://proxy.geneseo.edu:2085/doi/abs/10.1525/maq.2006.20.3.279?prevSearch=n avajo+life, accessed October 4, 2007.

In this article, I describe changes in patterns of alcohol use and abuse among Navajo Indians from the mid-1960s to the late 1990s. The prevalence of alcohol dependence continues to be higher than in the general U.S. population, but remission is also common, as it was in the 1960s and previously. Men have substantially higher rates of alcohol dependence than women. The former engage in heavy drinking largely in response to the heavy drinking of those around them. The latter drink excessively largely as a response to psychiatric disorders, depression, and abuse by a partner or husband. As increasing numbers of people have moved to reservation and border towns, a youth culture has developed in which alcohol use is initiated by teenagers with their peers rather than, as in the past, with older kinsmen. Alcohol use has thus been freed from the constraints imposed by both isolation and family obligations.

Manuelito, Kathryn.

2005 The Role of Education in American Indian Self-Determination: Lessons from the Ramah Navajo Community School. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 39:73-87. Electronic document, http://proxy.geneseo.edu:2085/doi/abs/10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.073?prevSearch=navajo+life, accessed October 4, 2007.

Since 1975 the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act has enabled American Indian communities to enact self-determination through community-based schooling. In this study conducted by a Navajo researcher, the Ramah Navajo community defined self-determination and how it was operationalized within the community and school. The study demonstrates how education based on Navajo epistemology has been integral to self-determination at Ramah, underscoring the importance of incorporating Native American epistemologies in schooling for Indigenous students.

 

 

[Rebecca Coons, rsc2@geneseo.edu 10/14]

 

 

 

 

 

This site links to all kinds of scholarly sites each of which deals with Navaho culture, mythology, language, and lifestyle. The woman in charge of the site is a linguist and it is evident that she has made a scholarly site.

This site deals with the effects of Uranium mining in Navaho lands. Some of the victims who had died mining finally had testimony heard and their families received compensation for the loss of life. This site is scholarly, evidenced by the visuals (photographs, charts, etc) and the links to other scholarly information on the topic.

 

 

 

 

This site provides information about how the government handled the uranium contamination and mistreatment of Navaho workers in uranium mines. This site is scholarly because it is representative of a real grassroots organization that serves to educate people on the effects of uranium leeching into drinking water for thousands of Navajo people and other health conditions linked to Uranium contamination and exposure. -END-

 

[Kaitlyn Northrop, krn3@geneseo.edu, 10/21]

 

 

Navajo Nations Department of Information Technology
2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation. Electronic Document, http://www.navajo.org/history.htm, accessed 21 October 2007
 
This site gives an overview of the history and culture of the Navajo people. It gives information on things such as where they are in the world, their government structure, background on why their flag is how it is as well as information on their museum. It would be considered scholarly because it was created by the Navajo and kept up by the Navajo. It is also the official site of the Navajo nation.
 
Durtschi, Al; Feed, Walton
2007 An Introduction to the Navajo Culture. Open Educational Resources. Electronic document, http://www.oercommons.org/courses/an-introduction-to-the-navajo-culture, accessed 21 October 2007
 
This site contains detailed information on the Navajo culture as described by the Navajo people. It contains information such as language, ceremonies, beliefs, family structure, and rituals. This would be considered scholarly because the information was taken from what the Navajo people told the authors. It is also an online course in which people can learn about the Navajo people online.
 
Norstog, Jon
1997 Navajo-Hopi Long Land Dispute. Electronic Document, http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/az/navhopi.html, accessed 21 October 2007
 
This site contains information on the struggle of the Navajo to get the land back that belonged to them. It gives information on where the people were living in the past compared to today and what land should be rightfully theirs. This site would be considered scholarly because it was researched within the Land Commission of the Navajo and this therefore means that the information presented must be legitimate since it is deemed ok by the government.
 
-END-
 
[Nicole Rothman, ngr1@geneseo.edu, 10/21]
Navajo Nation Hospitality Enterprise

2002 Navajo Culture. Electronic document, http://explorenavajo.com/culture.asp,

accessed October 21, 2007

This site provides information on Navajo culture. It’s connected to tourism, so it provides current events including news and tourist attractions.

 

Eck, Pam

1998 Navajo Indians. Electronic document.

http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/navajo.htm, accessed October 21,2007

This site has information on many aspects of Navajo culture including art, food and religion.

 

Northwestern University Digital Library Collection

2004 Edward S. Curtis’s The North American Indian. Electronic document,

http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/toc.cgi, accessed October 21, 2007

this site provides volumes of Edward Curtis’s research on the Navajo along with his photos.

END
 
 
[Dan Lilly, djl5@geneseo.edu 10/22]
 
 
Savage, Melissa and Swetnam, Thomas W.
1990 Early 19th Century Fire Decline Following Sheep Pasturing in a Navajo Ponderosa Pine Forest. Ecology 71(6) Pp. 2374-2378, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0012-9658%28199012%2971%3A6%3C2374%3AE1FDFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N, accessed October 22, 2007.
 
This article actually discusses a theory that Navajo dependency on sheep actually led to a decrease in forest fires, because grazing resulted in less grasses and small plants that easily catch fire and spark larger forest fire disasters. The authors are established professors are UCLA and the University of Arizona, respectively.
 
Witherspoon, Gary
1977 Language and Art in the Navajo Universe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=zWHIuIKy_qQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=navajo&ots=p-R-MyjUr1&sig=mCP4qrP7wLGqqlNp7c3Q-RLMHz8#PPA2,M1, accessed October 22, 2007.
 
This book discusses Navajo culture as evident in two well-known aspects of their culture; language and art. The author's hope is for the reader to gain a better understanding of the Navajo and perhaps become more sympathetic to their current situation. The book's credibility is helped by the fact that it was published by a university press.
 
Willeto, Angela A. A.
1999 Navajo Culture and Family Influences on Academic Success: Traditionalism is not a Significant Predictor of Achievements Among Young Navajos. Journal of American Indian Education 38(2), http://jaie.asu.edu/v38/V38I2A1.pdf, accessed October 22, 2007.
 
Willeto attempts to find explanation for the overall poor performance of Navajo students in public schools. Specifically, she seeks to find the influence of the family unit on the individual student's education. Willeto is a professor of sociology at Northern Arizona University.
 
END
 
 
 
 
[Shamiran Warda, sw11@geneseo.edu 10/22]
 

National Museum of the American Indian

 

2007 Native Words, Native Warriors. Electronic document, http://www.nmai.si.edu/education/codetalkers/html/index.html, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

Abstract: This website talks a little about the background information on the Navajo people before and during World War II. In addition, it discusses their language as an intelligence code where the enemies failed to crack during this war. In all, this website is scholarly because the information is coming from the National Museum of the American Indian, which is hosted by the Smithsonian Institute. Adding more to the website, is that it is very organized and easy to use thus time was spent in making sure this website is the best it can be. The pictures shown in this site also add greater value to the site because it gives the reader a visual as he or she continues on reading, with a little description under each picture as well as where the picture was taken from. Lastly at the very end of the site, resources are given.

 

Navajo Indian Information

2007 Electronic Document, http://navajo-indian.orgl" href="http://navajo-indian.orgl" href="http://navajo-indian.orgl" class="linkification-ext">http://navajo-indian.orgl" class="linkification-ext">http://navajo-indian.orgl, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

Abstract: This website gives one links to other information on the Navajo, ranging from Navajo news to Navajo pictures to their language and in all their culture. What makes this site scholarly is that it exposes one to everything there is to know about the Navajo people (Dine) and because it is updated, well organized and contains useful information and pictures. In addition, after reading each section, this website provides other links that go more in depth about that topic.

 

Eck, Pam

1998 Navajo Indians. Electronic document. http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/navajo.htm, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

Abstract: This website gives the background information on the Navajo, and then it goes into the coming of the Spaniards and ends where these people are living today. This website is scholarly in that it provides information on many aspects of the Navajo people; from their food and art to their religion and overall culture.

 

{Isobel Connors, icc2@genseo.edu, 10/21}

 

Redish, Laura

2007 Navajo Indian Language (Dine). Electronic document, http://www.native-languages.org/navajo.htm, accessed October 21, 2007.

 

This webpage offers an array of links about the Navajo and their language, called Dine, including animal vocabulary, numerous Navajo-English dictionaries, and cultural sites. This source is scholarly because the editor of the page, Laura Redish, is a linguist who is director of an organization called Native Languages of the Americas. She provides information that she has gathered, while linking other scholarly websites to her page.

 

Rissetto, C. Adriana

1997 Four Sacred Mountains. Electronic document, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA97/dinetah/front.html, accessed October 21, 2007.

 

This site provides information on Navajo geography, creation myths, ceremonies, architecture, and issues of land dispute. The website is scholarly because it was developed at the University of Virginia and provides a works cited page of scholarly research.

 

Navajo Nation Tourism Office

2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation: History. Electronic document, http://www.navajo.org/history.htm#, accessed October 21, 2007.

This site offers a brief history of the Navajo Nation, explaining its government, code talkers, flag, and window rocks. This site can be considered scholarly because it was created by members of the Navajo Nation, and thus references many primary sources.

END.

 

 

 

Navajo

 

[Anne Kim, ak13@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

 

Aberle, David Friend

1983 Navajo economic development, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/e/ehraf/ehraf-idx?c=ehrafe;view=doc;subview=ocm;id=NT13-209;owc=NT13, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This work discusses topics on Navajo economic development and planning. It includes a historical overview. Aberle then moves to more detailed discussions of current problems, including energy resource development, the role of the BIA, and tribal enterprises. This work focuses on the reasons for economic underdevelopment, largely blaming big corporations and the BIA plus state governments.

 

Aberle, David Friend

1983 Peyote religion among the Navajo, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/e/ehraf/ehraf-idx?c=ehrafe;view=doc;subview=ocm;id=NT13-202;owc=NT13, acessed October 22, 2007.

 

This article focuses on the growth of the Native American Church among the Navajo. Three fundamental issues are addressed: the spread of Peyotism from other tribes through the Navajo population, possible reasons for its success, and its role as a source of conflict within Navajo society and with state governments and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

 

Bryan, Kirk

2004 Flood-water farming, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/e/ehraf/ehraf-idx?c=ehrafe;view=doc;subview=ocm;id=NT13-079;owc=NT13, accessed October 22, 2007.

 

This paper considers the geographical relationships of the practice of floodwater and the decline in acreage in relation to recent changes in stream channels. However, it is of particular interest to the ethnographer since flood-water farming was one of the important sources of livelihood of the prehistoric sedentary Indians of Arizona and New Mexico and is still being carried on to a lesser extent in the area today.

END

 
 
[Adam Saunders, ars11@geneseo.edu, 10/22/07]
 

Navaho

D. Brugge and R. Goble

The History of Uranium Mining and the Navajo People. Electronic Document http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/92/9/1410. Accessed October 22, 2007.

-This article outlines the Uranium mining done by the Navaho people. The affects of the Uranium can still be seen today and is a fact covered by the article. It includes information about the efforts to help the Navaho and systems that were put in place by the United States government to keep the Navaho protected from the Uranium as they mined.

 

Hedlund, Ann Lane

2006 Navajo Weaving at Arizona State Museum: 19th Century Blankets; 20th Century Rugs; 21st Century Views. Electronic document, http://www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/exhibits/navajoweave/index.shtml, accessed Oct 22, 2007.

-This small site gives a vantage point into the weaving of the Navaho people. It gives introduction to the various artists and a cultural anthropologists that takes part in the history of the Navaho weaving. The site goes through three decades of different weaving and discusses the various designs and patterns that are used.

 

END

 

[Lok Yung Yam, ly5@geneseo.edu, 10/22/07]

 

 

Shepardson, Mary

1962 Value Theory in the Prediction of Political Behavior: The Navajo Case. American Anthropologist 64 (4):742-750. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article discusses how the Navajo organize their political structure and why they do it that way, citing their culture as proof. This is scholarly because it appears in an anthropological journal and JSTOR. It also has a proper works cited list.

Lyon, William H.

1996 The Navajos in the Anglo-American Historical Imagination, 1807-1870. Ethnohistory 43 (3):483-509. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article discusses the way Navajos appear to white Americans, essentially, their stereotypes. It also goes into the way white Americans appeared to the Navajo, taking both points of view. It is scholarly because it is relatively up-to-date, and has been published in an anthropological jounal.

Mirkowich, Nicholas

1941 A Note on Navajo Place Names. American Anthropologist 42 (2):313-314. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org, accessed October 22, 2007.

Abstract: This article discusses the origins of place names that can be derived from Navajo language, and clears up common misconceptions people have about them. This is scholarly because it was published in an anthropological journal, and was screened by JSTOR.

 

 

 

 

[Steph Aquilina, sma8@geneseo.edu, 10/22]

Navajo Scholarly Web Research

 

Brugge, Doug and Goble, Rob.

2002 The history of uranium mining and the Navajo people. American Journal of Public Health. 92(9): 1410-1419. Electronic document,

http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/92/9/1410, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

This article focuses on the history of uranium mining in the United States, including political policies, environmental conditions, issues of compensation for illness, associated deaths, and the overall impact on the Navajo people. This is a scholarly source because it provides an extensive list of references, is peer reviewed, and appears in a reputable journal.

 

 

Byers, Tim and Hubbard, John

1997 The Navajo Health and Nutrition Survey: Research That Can Make A Difference. American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 127(10):

2075S-2077S. Electronic document, Google Scholar, http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/127/10/2075S, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

This article examines Navajo health and nutrition and modern studies connected to retrieving that information, and encourages research and treatments to improve the overall health of Navajo people. It is a scholarly source because it was written by a professor at University of Colorado School of Medicine, published in a reputable journal, and provides an extensive list of references.

 

 

Navajo Nation

2005 The Navajo Nation: Official Site of the Navajo Nation. Electronic document, http://www.navajo.org/index.htm, accessed October 19, 2007.

 

This website was created and is maintained by the Navajo Nation. It provides links to all programs and departments, current news stories, history, and government; it also includes sources that Navajos can use for finding jobs and locating public services. It is scholarly because it is a primary source. END

 

[Dan McConvey, dpm5@geneseo.edu, 10/23]

Navajo Scholarly Research on the Web

 

 

National Museum of the American Indian

2007 Native Words, Native Warriors. Electronic Document, http://www.nmai.si.edu/education/codetalkers/html/index.html, accessed October 23, 2007.

Abstract

This site is a basic outline and a testament to the Native American Warriors. The site focuses directly on the Navajo involvement in World War II, more specifically as “code-talkers.” The site also highlights the amount of American Indian men and women who bravely served in all branches of the United States military despite not their lack of full rights within their own country. This site is scholarly in that it is a subset of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian.

 

Navajo Language Academy

2006 The Navajo Language Academy, Inc. Electronic document, http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/tfernal1/nla/nla_gen.htm, accessed October 23, 2007.

Abstract

This site is for the Navajo Language Academy and gives an outline on the how this non-profit educational organization came into being. The Navajo Language Academy aims to further the language scholarship of the Navajo Language and to strengthen the position of the language at all levels. This site appears to be scholarly. Several of the members of the NLA have been sponsored by the American Indian Language Development Institute to do workshops for universities in the southwest. The scholarship of the site is called into question only by that fact that the only publication consists of writers from an organization of the graduate students in linguistics at MIT.

 

 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts

2007 Ketoh (Wrist Guard). Electronic document, http://www.artsmia.org/world-myths/artbyculture/ketoh_story.html, accessed October 23, 2007.

Abstract

This is an art site with the history, description and photographs of the Navajo Ketoh armband, which was used to protect the forearm when shooting a bow and arrow. The turquoise stone in the center represents where the Navajo entered the world. The site gives the Navajo creation story of Begochiddy’s process of creating the different levels of the world. This site seems scholarly because it is a part of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and because the creation story is also taken from the scholar Joseph Bruchac’s book Native American Stories.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please include 3 annotated citations to scholarly web resources focused on one of the following topics about the Navaho - History, Tradition and Change, Reservation System, Alcoholism, Education, Uranium Mining, Sickness and Health. All citations should be written in American Anthropologist style and placed alphabetically by author last name.

 

American Anthropologist cheat sheet

 


 

Here is an example of how we would like students to provide their information. First, begin with your contact information (name, e-mail address, and date of post) Second, include the citation of your desired material in American Anthropologist style. Third, add your annotation of the scholarly material (what is the item about? In your mind, what makes it scholarly?). An annotation does not need to be more than 2-3 sentences long, but be as complete and thorough as you would like.

 

[E. Kintz kintz@geneseo.edu 9/6]

 

The Navajo Nation

2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation. Electronic document, http://www.navajo.org/history.htm, accessed September 6, 2007

 

Abstract. This website provides significant information on Navajo history, news, political organization, including names of officers. There are valuable links to explore Navajo culture. However, there are no attached bibliographical referecnes. While it is not written by university scholars, it does provide current information on issues affecting Navajo life.

 

[Lanh Nguyen, ltn2@geneseo.edu, 9/26]

Navaho- Scholarly Research

 

Abstract: This website is EXTREMELY!! It has a wide array of topics concerning Navajo Indians: numerous links to their culture, language, folklores/myths, along with available books. I know that this website is credible because it is a non-profit organizational website that was created by a Cherokee man. Now it is being monitored by a lady named Laura Reddish. She has a few books that are credible in GoogleScholars, and she is also a linguist.

Reddish, Laura

2007 Navajo Indian Language (Dine). Electronic document, http://www.native-languages.org/navajo.htm

 

 

Alfred Dilluvio ajd12@geneseo.edu

 

 

Navajo Nation

2005 Welcome to the Navajo Nation. Electronic Document. http://www.navajo.org/history.htm accessed September 20, 2007.

This is scholarly because it is a site filled with firsthand information generated from the Navajo themselves. They are providing readers with accounts of their own history.

 

 

Land Use of the North America

2002 Navajo . Electronic Document. http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/People/navajo.htm, accessed September 20, 2007

This is a scholarly web resource because of the wealth of citations within the text. The author has provided us with a works cited list on the Navajo page consisting of a wealth of scholarly sources.

 

Northern Arizona University

1998 Colorado Plateau: Land Use History: Navajo (Dine). Electronic Document.

http://cpluhna.nau.edu/People/navajo.htm, accessed Sept 20, 2007**

This is a scholarly source because it is a university web page with citations and references and it was written by professors.

 

 

 

Charlie Genao cg7@geneseo.edu 10/22/07

 

Willeto. A.A Angela.

1999 Navajo Culture and Family Influences on Academic Success:Traditionalism is not a Significant Predictor of Achievements Among Young Navajos. Journal of American Indian Education 38(2), http://jaie.asu.edu/v38/V3812A1.pdf. 

Accessed October 20,2007.

 

Annotation This is scholarly because this article talks about poor perfomance at school due to the historical mistreatment of the Navajos and the poverty that is upon them. Culture and Family influences is also discuss in this website.

 

Wheeler,Nathan and Emily Ronald

2006 Navajo Community and Farmington, New Mexico. Electronic document,  http://www.pluralism.org/research/profiles/display.php?profile=74198, Accessed October 20, 2007.

 

Annotation: . It focuses more on the political side of the Navajo in relation to the United States goverment and places a great emphisis on how the Navajo was mistreated by the US govt prejudice pratices. The Navajo suffered from a lack of health education resources in general. The article also stresses how hard they had to work in order to get thier basic needs. It is scholarly because it is from Havard and it is a project to help the Navajo in achieving equality.

 

Navajo National Foundation

2007 Home page of the Navajo National Foundation. Electronic Document,  

http://www.navajofoundation.org/, Accessed December 14, 2007.

 

Annotation: This site focuses on getting funds and money to help Navajo communities and it really focuses on education. They give schloarships and this organization gains its money through donations. This scholarly because these people are truly commited in help Navajo children in scholarhips and over services.

 

 

[Brendan Ryan, bmr4@geneseo.edu 10/23/2007]

 

MacPherson, Robert S.

1988 Navajo Indians. Electronic Document.

historytogo.utah.gov/utah, accessed October 20, 2007

 

This is an article written by Robert MacPherson who has written numerous bookjs about the Navajo and other Native American groups. The website is technically devoted to the history of Utah but this specific portion is all about the Navajo. This website is scholarly primarily because it is a .gov site and is written by a published auther in the field of Navajo Indians.

 

White, James

 

2007 The Eskimo. Electronic Document.

faculty.marianopolis.edu, accessed October 22, 2007

 

 

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