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Readings (due November 1)

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 9 months ago

To comment on the following readings, please first indicate your name, e-mail address, and the date of your post. Then, add your comments.

 

Example: [E. Kintz, kintz@geneseo.edu, 8/25]

 

 

IN THE FUTURE COMMENTS - LET'S BEGIN TO THINK LIKE CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND USE THE SCHEMATA THAT SCHOLARS APPLY TO THE STUDY OF OTHER CULTURES. PLEASE IDENTIFY YOUR FOCUS FOR YOUR WIKI POST AS:

 

A. ENVIRONMENT

B. KINSHIP AND MARRIAGE

C. ECONOMICS

D. POLITICS

E. IDEOLOGY/SYMBOLISM

F. SOCIAL CHANGE

 

YOU NEED TO HAVE THREE COMMENTS FROM EACH READING USING AND IDENTIFYING THE CATEGORY ABOVE AND YOU MAY USE THE SAME TOPIC MULTIPLE TIMES IF YOU WISH. POSTINGS SHOULD BE LIMITED TO THREE SENTENCES. THIS WIKI IS DESIGNED TO ENSURE YOUR ATTENTION TO THE READINGS LISTED IN YOUR SYLLABUS AND TO ASSIST YOU IN MASTERING INFORMATION ON WORLD CULTURES AND PROVIDING YOU WITH A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

 

 

The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

 

This post does not need to be completed.

 

 

 

Type your comments here . . .

Larkin Kimmerer

Where is this?

 

The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars

[Lanh Nguyen, ltn2@geneseo.edu, 11/19]

Johnson says that there is no root cause behind the Sudan Civil Wars. He does say that by studying the history of the political development in Sudan, we are able to see that the origins lie in the formation and legitimization of power in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. He identifies how the government in Sudan used militias, created incentives for the north to exploit the southerners, and continually failed to nation-build, which all contributed to the civil wars. Although these are not the only causes of the civil wars, they are big factors behind the origins.

 

END

 

-I was unable to actually find the book by Johnson in the library so I decided to go elsewhere to try and find it. I ended up finding some of it in a book review by and by looking at the electronic version of the book online at GoogleBooks.

 

(Cameron Mack, cfm6@geneseo.edu, 11/26)

 

The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

 

- I was not able to find this book that was required for the post. So, I searched for it in another manner, as to be able to complete the required assignment. I used google to search for other possible resources that would provide me with the necessary information. I searched google books, predominately, since it provides actual text from the book.

 

Johnson, Douglas H.

    2003 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Google Books, http://www.books.google.com, accessed December 16, 2007.

 

*I didn't provide a direct link because it won't let me "copy" and "paste". The link was a mile long.

 

I also used the source...

 

Kevane, Michael

    Review of The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil War. Electronic Document, http://lsb.scu.edu/~mkevane/review%20of%20root%20causes%20of%20civil%20war.htm,         accessed December 16, 2007. 

 

[Anne Kim, ak13@geneseo.edu, 12/2/07]

 

The root causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars

ECONOMICS/POLITICS: The states have had a great impact on the economic and political changes in Sudan. State power in the Muslim era frequently depended on international and domestic slave trade. Similarly, slave-raiding was a state activity. In addition, Islam had increasingly commercial contact with Muslim external world, which led to the entrenchment of Islam in the central Nile valley and Sudanic states. It is also stated that there were political as well as commercial reasons that led to their Civil Wars.

 

I couldn't find this book in the library, therefore, I searched online to find the book. I used the Google search engine and typed in the title.

 

http://books.google.com/books?id=ySiK5cSnLwUC&dq=%22the+root+causes+of+sudan%27s+civil+wars%22&pg=PP1&ots=ADVG-VVYLZ&sig=zu9n4WB3RXVGRDb8EeQjM_w6jI0&prev=http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22the+root+causes+of+sudan%27s+civil+wars&btnG=Search&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail

 

Johnson, Douglas H.

2002 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

 

END

 

[Elen De Oliveira, emd10@geneseo.edu, 12/10]

 

I couldn't find this anywhere so I searched for other methods of learning about his book. I found a detailed review as well as a youtube video of him giving some information on what he set out to do with his book and what he focused on which provided the information I used to comment with.

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScbGySzsRaw

 

Kevane, Michael

Review of The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Electronic Document, http://lsb.scu.edu/~mkevane/review%20of%20root%20causes%20of%20sudans%20civil%20war.htm, Accessed Dec 10, 2007.

 

Johnson set out to explain the root causes of the war which were a number of interrelated things. He doesnt go into detail about any of the newer aspects such as the war in Darfur because it is meant to simply be background information. By reading about the root causes one can better understand how the war has escalated and broken off into the different problems occuring now. He explains the difference between the first two civil wars to highlight the different causes.

 

 

 

Kaitlyn Northrop, krn3@geneseo.edu 12/12

 

Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

 

I could not find this book in the library so I searched for it on google and found a book review in which I could gather information from. 

 

The book review that Michael Kevane wrote was helpful in explaining what Johnson talked about in the book.  I also had some previous knowledge of the subject to expand upon from my own research for my powerpoint project.

 

Kevane, Michael

       2003 Review of The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil War.  Electronic Document.                                                                                            http://lsb.scu.edu/~mkevane/review%20of%20root%20causes%20of%20sudans%20civil%20war.htm Date Accessed: December        12, 2007

 

Full Website: http://lsb.scu.edu/~mkevane/review%20of%20root%20causes%20of%20sudans%20civil%20war.htm

 

I thought that the points that Johnson brought up in the reading were very interesting and good topics to discus, but at times I wish that there would have been more information about modern occurences such as what is happening in Darfur. The reading was important because it does give detail about why the wars have started, which is important to help to understand the problems that are occurring today. The genocide is growing more and more, not only in Darfur but in other parts of the world as well, and it is important to understand the problems at the root to try and fix the ones occurring on the surface.

 

END

 

[Jennifer Ritzenthaler, jkr5@geneseo.edu, 12/15/07]

 

The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars

Politics: Johnson talks about the roots causes of the civil wars in the Sudan, going into religious, political, and economic sources of conflict. Many of these problems seem to stem from a lack of proper development. Due to this, small disputes are not resolved quickly, so they simply grow, making the conflict larger and more representative of what it is today. Johnson looks into the past as to give a background of the source of the civil wars in the Sudan, though he does not go into much detail about the more well-known conflicts that the media is makings us aware of today.

 

I was unable to find this source on eres or in the library anywhere, so I found the book on the internet. Here is the citation:

 

Johnson, Douglas H.

2003 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Google

Books, http://books.google.com, accessed December 15, 2007.

 

END.

 

{Isobel Connors, icc2@geneseo.edu, 12/16}

 

The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

 

POLITICS: Johnson postulates that the causes of Sudan's Civil War are unclear, but resulted from a multitude of problems. He discusses the corruption of the government and its use of violent military force on its citizens. Conflicts arose between the southerners and the northerners because the government exploited their resources, which Johnson believes is another root cause of the Civil War. Although a true understanding of the causes of the Sudan Civil War is perhaps impossible, Johnson outlines the many reasons for the violence that has ensued.

~END.

 

**Note:  this book was unavailable in the library, so I took the liberty of google searching the text and came up with a couple sources that helped me gain a general idea of the book's topic.

 

Ronen, Yehudit 

    2004 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars.  Electronic document.  http://www.meforum.org/article/1528, accessed December 17,     2007.

 

and also

 

Kevane, Michael

       2003 Review of The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil War.  Electronic Document.                                                                                            http://lsb.scu.edu/~mkevane/review%20of%20root%20causes%20of%20sudans%20civil%20war.htm, accessed December                17, 2007

 

 

The root causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

 

Alfred Dilluvio ajd12@geneseo.edu 12/16

 

I could not find this book anywhere so i consulted two other sources which aimed at the root causes of the Civil War in Sudan. I looked at the youtube video of the author describing what was in his book and the book source on googlebooks. Here is a link to the youtube video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScbGySzsRaw. I also looked at the source that Dr. Kintz gave us which told us a bit about the causes of the war.

 

As with most wars, there are no definable causes. There are just escalations of aggression between groups of people with incompatible goals. Corrupt governments seem to be the source of many wars and in the case of Sudan, I happen to believe this to be the reason for the war. Governments always seek to better the situations of the few rich and poweful leaders of the goverment. Why would the Sudanese government be any different. Maintaining power and control/money is always the goal with most governments, and if exploiting citizens is the only way to effectively maintain control, so be it. This unequal exploitation and government alliance has led to civil war and political unrest which has the guise of religious war.

 

 

[Heather Warren, hrw1@geneseo.edu, 12/16]

 

Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars

Sociopolitical Conflict: The causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars seem to be almost like a mosaic of causes of different civil wars in other areas that when combined created an extremely unstable situation. The fact that there were so many interrelated yet distinct triggers and resulting problems makes these wars incredibly difficult to stop, or at the very least to prevent escalation. It surprises me that so many people in the world do not even know about what is going on in the Sudan, let alone care. The fact that genocide is not the only horrible thing going on there should at least catch some attention. But with so many other third world countries in similar (if not so violent) states, they seem to lose media attention and many (though not all) people in places like the United States, so far away from it all, cease to care.
NOTE: I could not find this in reserve so just in case it was on reserve but was out every time I got there I looked online and searched. I ended up using Google Books and found the book http://www.google.com/search?q=The+Root+Causes+of+Sudan%27s+Civil+Wars&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail&hl=en#PPP1,M1">here.

 

 

Johnson, Douglas Hamilton

 

2003 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Google Books, http://books.google.com, accessed December 16, 2007.

 

-END-

 

 

[Jonathon Baker, jlb22@geneseo.edu, 12/16/07]

“The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars”

Politics—It is always difficult to gauge the cause of war. There are just so many variables and small things going on that it is extremely difficult for an outsider to understand why things happen. From what I knew about what was going on in Sudan before this class, it sounded just like senseless killing. After learning more about it, I realize that it really is senseless killing, except in the eyes of a few people in control of a disporportionate amount of influence. I guess however that’s how most conflicts are though.

END

 

 Note:  I could not find this book on eRes, so I looked up a review on Google Books. below is the reference....

 

Johnson, Douglas H.

    2003 The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Google

    Books, http://books.google.com, accessed December 15, 2007.

 

 

Student Powerpoint, The Nuer

 

Type your comments here . . .

 

[Dave Roberts, dlr4@geneseo.edu, 11-1]

 

1.) Although the three sections concerning the culture of the Nuer will well done and informative, it was clear that the most pressing and important issue discussed was that of the genocide in Darfur. Elen's presentation was objective yet still heartfelt and stimulated good discussion and perhaps activitism in the class.

 

2.) The concept of the "ghost husband" was intriguing. While the new man in the widow's life takes on all the responsibities and roles of the first husband, he recieves none of the money or material benefits, which go to the "ghost husband." I'm assuming the family of the deceased takes possesion of his things.

 

3.) Why did no one talk about how they cleaned themselves with dung ashes and cow urine? It's interesting AND funny... come on guys.

 

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, war and the State

 

Type your comments here . . .

[Larkin Kimmerer, llk5@geneseo.edu, 11-18-07]

Nuer Dilemmas

-KINSHIP/MARRIAGE/CHANGE: A Nuer man joked that "between men and women is an old braided grass rope" (p 158), and the men and women play tug-of-war with who has the right. Men have lost a bit of power to women because their social role of protectors is being lost as their culture modernizes and the government gains more power over them. However women are also losing power because they are losing control over resources within their marriages. Because of the rapidly changing Nuer environment and contact with the outside world, gender roles are changing as well.

END

 

Nuer Dilemma:

[Lanh Nguyen, ltn2@geneseo.edu, 11/19]

Change: Hutchinson talks about cattle and its use in the economy in chapter 2. Like we have learned cattle was used by the Nuer people as a means of currency. They exchanged and bought cattle to signify their wealth. It was possible for men to exchange a cow for money, but not the other way around. By the early 1960s, men were able to directly buy cattle with the money they made as migrant pickers. This illustrates the changing ways of the use of cattle and money.

 

END

 

(Cameron Mack, cfm6@geneseo.edu, 11/26)

 

Nuer Dilemma

 

- Change: The Nuer are being faced with a continuously changing world, which is constantly altering their society and culture (in large and small manners alike). Their rapidly shrinking environment has resulted in an increased contact with the world peripheral to the Nuer. This, in turn, has unfortunately and negatively effected the relationship with cattle, resources, marriage/kinship, and economy (etc.). The Nuer previously used cattle as their form of currency, however, given interactions with surrounding villagers, money has now made its way into the hunting and gathering world. This Nuer dilemma has altered every aspect of their lives. Through these readings, along with our other studies of their culture, the Nuer are not being benefited in any way from these social, political, and economical changes and interactions.

 

 

 

[Anne Kim, ak13@geneseo.edu, 12/2/07]

 

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War and the State

 

ECONOMICS: Sharon Elaine Hutchinson discusses the value of money. She shows us how other cultures think of “money” differently than us. For example, she tells us how she had a discussion with a highly intellectual man before and he asked her what the ultimate source of money was. After her answer, he opened her up to a whole new idea. He states “Money’s not like the cow because the cow has blood and breath and, like people, gives birth. But money does not. So, tell me, do you know whether God or man creates money?” This illustrates how differently cultures acknowledge money’s true source.

 

END

 

[Elen De Oliveira, emd10@geneseo.edu, 12/10]

 

Pritchard gave a great overview of everything having to do with the nuer from religion, to marriage, to the cattle, which was a main aspect of thier everyday life. Hutchinson wanted to expland on his information, which she did by actually going into detail about the change that has been overtaking the lives of the Nuer today. She states that "culture is up for grabs" which is something that is a serious problem for people like the Nuer. The intriguing culture that was laid out for us to enjoy in Pritchards book, is hanging by a thread because of all the the war racking the country. Darfur is a prime example of people whose culture is "up for grabs." Hundreds of thousands have died and those who haven't live in refugee camps where they struggle to maintain a semblence of their former lives. We take culture for granted which is something that Hutchinson points out to her readers.

 

END

 

Kaitlyn Northrop, krn3@geneseo.edu, 12/12

 

I thought it was interesting to discuss the change that is occurring in terms of cattle and their meaning. Years ago, the cattle was actally used as money- it was given in exchange for goods and services. The more cattle that a man had, the more wealthy he was. This was in a literal meaning. Modernly, the cattle represents a mans wealth symbolically, and as a man has more cattle, it shows that he has more money to buy them with. this inidcates the changing purpose of the cattle and its importance to the Nuer culture.

 

END

 

[Jennifer Ritzenthaler, jkr5@geneseo.edu, 12/13/07]

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War and the State

Economy and Ideology: The Nuer see money as sterile and bloodless, having only immediate value in comparison to cattle. A cow could procreate and thus has greater ultimate value. They see a difference between money obtained from working and money made from selling cattle (Hutchinson 1996: 56). There are even different types of cattle depending on whether it is purchased or is received through bridewealth exchange. There is a hybrid categorical system of monetary and cattle wealth. This shows the immense importance of cattle in the Nuer economy, even after the introduction of coin and paper currency.

END.

 

{Isobel Connors, icc2@geneseo.edu, 12/16}

 

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State

 

MARRIAGE RELATIONS: As Larkin points out, the Nuer men and women are in a constant struggle for authority has been largely affected by the government's intervention on Nuer traditional life. This problem reminded me of the similar issues that Native Americans faced when the government/missionaries attempted to "civilize" them. The men were forced to work an agricultural lifestyle, which was traditionally the female role in Indian culture; thus, this shift in roles acted to immasculate the men and led to problems that are still prevalent today.

~END.

 

Alfred Dilluvio ajd12@geneseo.edu 12/16

 

The Nuer traditionally saw cattle as actual money or currency. They viewed cattle as currency because they traded them and managed them and kept them. They were the ultimate source of value and life for the Nuer. Nowadays, cattle can be used to generate money. Money became known to the Nuer because of the goverment's intervention into traditional Nuer life. We once again see how money, which is introduced by the government of the region and imposed by others on traditional people causes serious problems. The intervention and imposition of beliefs from a third party is always the source of problems for traditional peoples of the world.

 

 

[Heather Warren, hrw1@geneseo.edu, 12/16]

 

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War and the State

Socioeconomics: Traditionally the Nuer used cows as a wealth status and as a living form of currency. Now that outside cultures have began to infringe upon and change the Nuer, paper/metal money has become the new currency. Despite this fact cows are still extremely important in their society and still represent wealth. I wonder if this is because they are still highly valued and essential for food or if it is now more of a symbolic kind of use of the cattle, especially since it is likely that some outside foods and customs have found their way into the Nuer society along with money.
NOTE: I could not find this in reserve so just in case it was on reserve but was out every time I got there I looked online and searched. I ended up using Google Books and found the book http://www.google.com/search?q=Nuer+Dilemmas:++Coping+with+Money,+War+and+the+State&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail&hl=en#PPP1,M1">here.

 

 

Elaine, Sharon

 

1996 Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Books, http://books.google.com, accessed December 16, 2007.

 

–END-

 

 

 

[Jonathon Baker, jlb22@geneseo.edu, 12/16/07]

Nuer Dilemmas

Economics—As I said in an earlier posting, it must be very different living in a world where your means of wealth and currency are constantly walking around mooing. This must make the change to real currency very difficult. I wonder at first if the Nuer even understood the purpose of paper/coin money. I would assume that to them it would have no value unless you can buy cattle with it. They wouldn’t understand its advantages. I wonder by now how many of them use paper money and how many still use cattle.

END

 

[Laurie Sadofsky, las22@geneseo.edu, 12/17]

Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State

Social Change: The Nuer are a perfect example of people affected by outside forces, like governments, who manage to maintain key aspects of their culture. In the past, cattle were considered money and they were traded just like we pay money for items in a store. Now, however, cattle are a symbol of wealth. The importance of cattle was very clear in the film “The Nuer” as well as Hutchinson’s writing since both show the respect the Nuer have for cattle since they raise their owner’s status and provide for them. Despite government intervention, the Nuer managed to keep the symbolism of cattle alive.

-END-

 

 

[Rebecca Coons, rsc2@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

Nuer Dilemmas – It is interesting how the Nuer use cattle as currency in that they trade them, and kept such detailed records of where they came from. They were used to pay bride prices and the introduction of money caused more problems than it solved. It makes me wonder how our society would function without paper or coin currency and if we still used a barter economy. It seems like it would be a more personal relationship and agreement on what a good price would be for something. I can see how that type of economy would be confusing compared to the flat rate of money but also see how people would benefit from forming personal relationships with one another (I’d be more likely to trade my car for chickens with someone I know and like rather than some random person; I’d want something bigger than a chicken).

 

[Skye Naslund, sjn1@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

 

Nuer Dilemmas

Economy-The Nuer not only use cattle for money or barter, but they value their cattle more than just a means of exchange.  Because the cattle is a living thing it is an investment and it has potential.  Because it is alive and has a soul and blood it is worth something.  Because this is a cultural norm, the idea of paper money has not caught on among the Nuer.  Our money to them is simply pieces of paper and is not tangible to the Nuer people. 

 

[Dilek Canakci, dc11@geneseo.edu, 12/17]

 

Nuer Dilemmas

 

Economy: The Nuer use cattle as money to trade and keep track of who gave what for future trading.  It is interesting how much they love their cattle and treat them like they are a part of their family. It is nice to see that people put importance to such goods rather than exchanging pieces of paper that the government controls.

 

 

[Steph Aquilina, sma8@geneseo.edu, 12/17]

 

Nuer Dilemmas

 

ECONOMY: The Nuer people are reluctant to equate cattle with money - they believe they are engaged in a sense of oneness with the cattle. They have created their own labor markets with these cattle, and they believe that the movement of money and cattle can occur in different spheres at the same time. Monetary usage helps to supplement inequalities inherent within the cattle economic system.

-END-

 

 

Commentary on "Sudan's Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities . . . " African Studies Review

http://www.jstor.org/view/00020206/ap020091/02a00080/0?currentResult=00020206%2bap020091%2b02a00080%2b0%2c1F&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FAdvancedResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26q0%3Dsudan%2Bprolonged%2Bsecond%2Bcivil%2Bwar%26f0%3D%26c0%3DAND%26wc%3Don%26sd%3D%26ed%3D%26la%3D%26ic%3D00020206%7C05681537%26node.African+Studies%3D1">Link to article

 

Type your comments here . . .

[Larkin Kimmerer, llk5@geneseo.edu, 11-18-07]

Commentary...

-POLITICS: This is an interesting discussion about the political organization (or lack thereof) in trying to help rebuild the Sudan. I have a friend who is a Sudanese Lost Boy from the Dinka tribe, and it really brings it closer to home to hear about it. One thing I found especially poignant was the fact that the peace process is not entirely stable and if it collapses or fails, the Sudan must start all over again in trying to attain peace, and at great cost.

END

 

Commentary on: By Eric Reeves

[Lanh Nguyen, ltn2@geneseo.edu, 11/19]

Politics: It is sad to read and hear about the terrible situations that these indigenous cultures are faced with. After reading this review, I am angered and utterly embarrassed to be apart of a powerful country that refuses to lend a helping hand. Although the UN is attempting to help with their $1 million a day, it is clearly going nowhere useful. It is nice to see that the Nuer and the Dinka have reconsolidated because it signifies a key moment in breaking the military stalemate.

END

 

(Cameron Mack, cfm6@geneseo.edu, 11/26)

 

Commentary...

 

- Politics/Change: I agree with the same frustrations that Lanh has concerning the involvement of the United States within this enormous conflict. I had a similar nauseating feeling when going through this review and reading/reminding myself of the great atrocities facing these indigenous cultures. I went to high school with a Sudanese Lost Boy, who was able to somewhat convey the unfortunate situation facing the helpless people of the region. I had not really considered our lack of support in the great dilemma of the reconstruction of Sudan until recently, however. There are steps being taken in the re-establishement process, such as the reconsiliation of the Nuer and Dinka tribes. The neutralizing of militant attacks will hoefully lead to a faster resolution. The commentary was informative in conveying the necessary actions which must be taken to solve these issues.

 

 

 

[Anne Kim, ak13@geneseo.edu, 12/2/07]

 

Commentary on “Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization….”

 

Eric Reeves discusses how the “civil war” in Sudan are more complex than Dinka/Nuer rivalries, but is still greatly destructive of human life in Southern Sudan. There are many questions that float in the air as to why this civil war is only growing even bigger. There is a UN-sponsored consortium of relief and humanitarian organizations but has not been successful at taking away famine and disease, in addition to the $1 million a day given to them. Reeves discusses how disturbing this whole situation is but is also ignored.

 

END

 

 

[Elen De Oliveira, emd10@geneseo.edu, 12/10]

 

this commentary makes it even clearer that everyone needs to do something, no matter how small, to help the people of Sudan as well as those suffering in other countries. People are quick to assume that the UN and other bigger organizations will do the job, but as this article points out, their $1 million per day is not enough. There is only so much one group can do so it is much more helpful and a solution can be found quicker if everyone took part.

 

END

 

 

Kaitlyn Northrop, krn3@geneseo.edu, 12/12

 

Commentary

 

This article tries to point out that the rivalries between the Dinka and the Nuer are not the only things that are hindering the relief efforts. It goes on to talk about how one single organization, set to help only Sudan gives one million dollars a day, which seems like a lot of money, but not when considering how many people one million dollars has to help care for. There are millions of displaced people that are depending on these relief efforts, and for some reason they are not working. This just goes to show that more attention needs to be paid to these people. They need more help, they need more people to band together and get them the food and medical care that they need to survive what is going on. Not only that, but they need to stop the fighting at the root, because without the rivalries being ended, things will just continue in the fashion that they have been going in for years. This is not going to help the people in Sudan, rather it is going to cause more pain and death.

 

END

 

[Jennifer Ritzenthaler, jkr5@geneseo.edu, 12/13/07]

Commentary on “Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities”

Politics: The division of Nuer and Dinka populations in the South Sudan is an important feature of a kind of civil war that is occurring there. Military leaders on both sides convert economic conflicts into political ones. What is particularly interesting is that this has resulted in a change in the traditional norms of both groups as the tribal and ethnic rivalries grow.

END.

 

[Dan Lilly, djl5@geneseo.edu 12/15]

Commentary on...

 

Once again, oil is the driving force for conflict and exploitation. Its always disgusting the things that come about because of the quest for oil and money. The effects that this has had on tribal populations is something that people really should have considered, but nobody ever does. There needs to be more focus on conflicts like this in Sudan and elsewhere in the world, otherwise they're simply going to continue forever.

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[Dan McConvey, dpm5@geneseo.edu, 12/15/07]

Commentary on "Sudan's Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of the Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities"

 

Politics:

The way that the Khartoum regime has exploited the rivalries between the Nuer and the Dinka is awful. The regime has been using these rivalries to its military and political advantage. The regime uses the Nuer factions as an inner line of security against the Dinka. The oil project infrastructure is the main reason that the regime is trying to keep the Dinka and Nuer weak. The Dinka and the Nuer can reach reconciliation decreases the regimes ability to adequately protect its southern oil project infrastructure.

The regime’s use of power to antagonize a rivalry is detrimental to the tribes. The traditional norm these tribal and ethnic rivalries used to be based on have transitioned through the regime’s manipulation. It is nice to see that they have been able to move towards peace and reduce military attacks. This commentary has been good at showing what really needs to be done to help solve the problems and issues that are happening in the Sudan.

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[Shamiran Warda, sw11@geneseo.edu 12/15]

 

Erick Reeves: Commentary on "Sudan's Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities . . ." African Studies Review

Politics: The two major groups in Sudan known as Nuer and Dinka have been fighting amongst each other for years now but the question remains why? And why is there no one or country trying to put an end to such a civil war? Such questions have been in the minds of many in particular me. I was shocked to read the part that mentioned how the 10 year old UN- Sponsored consortium of relief and humanitarian organizations known as the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) has been rather unsuccessful in averting not only the famine that many of the civilians are facing but also the new disease that are vastly spreading. It is sad to read how even one million dollars a day is not helping these people (Reeves 1999: 147). If two people such as the military leaders Riek Macher (Nuer) and John Garang (Dinka) are adding to the problems then we, the Americans, should step in and replace them with ones who are all about peace instead of those who only care about money in their pockets. It is sad that the human race is capable of achieving and creating beautiful things for instance art work but at the same time have a dark side to them, where often destroying each-other leaves one feeling pride and achievement. We are all one, all living in one world, we should learn to love and live in peace together than fight. Maybe these people have not been taught the meaning of a peaceful life, a life filled with happiness rather than hardships. Maybe if we improve their life-style they will come to realize the beauty of life and end the civil war that has ended so many innocent lives. In all it was a sad read that such events still occur in our world today but it was a good read in that it opens the eyes of the reader to the reality that is occurring in other parts of the world. END

 

{Isobel Connors, icc2@geneseo.edu, 12/16}

 

Commentary on "Sudan's Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities"

 

POLITICS: As many students have mentioned, the United Nations utter disregard for the atrocities that have occured in the Sudan is disgusting. America have no problem fighting wars for oil, yet when there is genocide occuring she often turns a blind eye. Although I am generally opposed to military force, in the case of Sudan, nothing else seems to be working. I am not suggesting that the U.N. declare war in Sudan; however, the Nuer and other tribes inhabiting Sudan need some sort of protection against the corrupt government and extreme violent conditions.

~END.

 

Alfred Dilluvio ajd12@geneseo.edu 12/16

 

I have to agree with Isobel about the disregard for the atrocities in Sudan committed by our government. We will fight a war for oil and frame it as a humanitarian attempt at "westernizing and bettering the situations of Iraqi citizens," but we avoid aiding areas of the world whose affairs will have no bearing on our financial and international security as a country. How can you help the problem if our goverment avoids it? It is difficult because of ethical issues but one has to take it upon themselves to rally people into moving towards a cause. Unfortunately, our country has a bunch of backwards values being taught to our children everyday. It is no wonder that we dont help anyone but ourselves.

 

 

[Heather Warren, hrw1@geneseo.edu, 12/16]

 

Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War

 

Sociopolitical: Of course it does not surprise me that the educated elite are the ones who instigated / kept the fighting going. It also does not surprise me that the real battle is between these elites vying for power and that they are two opposing peoples both living in the boundaries of one country. There is one thing I noticed in the article that was on page 148. It mentioned reconciliation between the two parties. It mentioned a news report in November of 1999 that the situation showed promise. It made me wonder whether or not they are still fighting and if any other progress has been made. END

 

 

 

[Jonathon Baker, jlb22@geneseo.edu, 12/16/07]

Sudan’s Prolonged Seccond Civil War

Politics—It’s just so frustrating to hear about governments that are so inefficient at attaining stability in their country. Despite so much foreign aid, the Sudan is having so much trouble getting peace. Weeks of work to reach an end to the conflict can be all for naught by the actions of a few trigger happy bandits. Every time the conflict fires up again, thousands are affected by the actions of just a few people.

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[Rebecca Coons, rsc2@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

Commentary on…- It is a sad thing for anthropologists that so many indigenous cultures face trouble as a result of outside contact. It’s sad because we need to be inside that culture in order to fully understand it and record it, but at the same time, anthropologists facilitate outside contact by bringing back such detailed information about other cultures. Right now it seems like oil and fuel is the driving force behind conflict all over the world. It is a sad thing that our reliance on oil is worth killing or being killed for, not just in our culture but in others.

 

 

 

 

 

[Laurie Sadofsky, las22@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War

Politics: As decribed in Hutchinson and Jok’s article, the civil war in the Sudan is mostly based on politics and ethnic divisions. The Sudanese government began the war in 1983 by supporting militias that attacked the Nuer and Dinka in the South. These two tribes were once one large militia called the SPLA, but split because of power struggles and disagreements over the type of government that should exist once peace is restored. This 1991 split has resulted in more devastation for the rebels and civilians than the original civil war. Thousands have been killed, displaced or cut off from resources that already are scarce. The political situation and ethnic divisions are hindering the possibility of peace in Southern Darfur and making life even more difficult for the innocent civilians caught in the middle.

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[Skye Naslund, sjn1@geneseo.edu, 12/17/07]

 

Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War

Politics-This article does a good job of explaining ethnic conflicts in Africa.  Though ethnicity is an easy explanation for war particularly when people already consider Africa backwards, it is not just ancient tribal rivalries that cause conflict.  The reason that ethnic groups clash is over resources.  Because the central government is weak and cannot provide for all of its citizens, citizens turn to the ethnic group to ensure their survival.  The ethnic group then tries to use the resources they have, but they have to compete with their neighbors for those limited resources. 

 

[Dilek Canakci, dc11@geneseo.edu, 12/17]

 

Commentary

 

It is heart breaking how much the indiginous people have to go through in order to live in their own land in peace.  It seems like people will never learn how to respect each other's beliefs and live in harmony. It seems like whatever other countries do for Africa, there is never enough change to be recognized and the people are constantly suffering.  I am beginning to think that such help from other countries is not reaching the right places.

 

 

 [Steph Aquilina, sma8@geneseo.edu, 12/17]

"Commentary on Sudan's Prolonged Second Civil War..."

ECONOMY/POLITICS: Sudan's oil development has caused significant problems within its borders. Despite the fact that large sums of money are available for humanitarian aid and relief to fight famine and disease, the civil war is still ensuing. In order to make viable progress in the military stalemate, the Nuer and Dinka peoples must reconcile - a most difficult and complex feat.

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